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The first stage of PGD is a biopsy of cellular material that can be performed on various stages of embryo development.
A biopsy of the 1st polar body is carried out on the day of follicular puncture (day 0).
A biopsy of the 1st polar body
In 16 hours after insemination, a biopsy of the 2nd polar body is carried out. A biopsy of the 1st and a biopsy of the 2nd polar body are performed separately for PCR analysis.
For FISH, biopsies of the 1st and the 2nd polar bodies can be carried out immediately after insemination, i.e. in the morning of the day following follicular puncture.
A biopsy of the 1st and the 2nd polar bodies
Polar bodies allow only the analysis of chromosomal disorders of the maternal genome and the analysis of meiosis I and II errors. This method can be combined with a biopsy of a blastomere on day 3 of the development.

The advantages of the method are:
  • Enough time for genetic diagnosis;
  • An embryo transfer in the same cycle;
  • A minimal risk of embryo damage;
  • can be conducted in countries where embryo diagnosis is prohibited (Germany, Austria).

The limitations of the method are:
  • It reflects neither post-zygotic aneuploidies nor paternal aneuploidies;
  • It cannot determine an embryo's gender;
  • A PB biopsy cannot be repeated;
  • Consecutive biopsies of the 1st PB in 4 hours after follicular aspiration and of the 2nd PB in 16-18 hours after insemination are strenuous and induce stress in an oocyte/zygote;
  • A high price for genetic diagnosis (10 oocytes = 20 samples).